Aviation Investigation Report A11P0106 accessibility page

Figure 1. Estimated flight path and turn radius

A topographic map shows a solid line that represents the estimated flight path of the aircraft.

The line curves downward (SSW), then upward (N), and ends at an “X” that marks the location of the crash site.

An arrow pointing to the curve in the flight path is labeled “45° banked turn at 70 knots, 900 feet diameter.”

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Figure 2. Comparison of the risk levels of turning distances at different airspeeds, based on speeds relative to small training aircraft (not for actual use)

A schematic diagram shows 5 curves that represent aircraft turns made at different degrees and airspeeds.

Each curve ends on a different point along two scales.

  • The top scale indicates the risk levels for stalling, and the bottom scale indicates the risk level for collision with terrain.
  • The second tightest curve, made at 80 knots and a 45° bank, is labeled as the “Ideal tight-turn envelope,” and falls at “Medium” on both risk scales.

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Figure 4. Good positioning

A colour rendering of a valley (supplied with permission by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority) shows an aircraft symbol and a dotted line that represents the aircraft’s flight path.

The flight path begins on the far right of the valley, then curves around to complete a turn in the other direction along the left slope.

A caption below the image reads “Positioning to one side of the valley leaves maximum room available in case a 180-degree turn is required.”

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Figure 5. Poor positioning

A colour rendering of a valley (supplied with permission by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority) shows an aircraft symbol and a dotted line that represents the aircraft’s flight path.

The flight path begins in the middle of the valley, curves left, and ends on the left slope. At the end of the line is a symbol representing a point of collision.

A caption below the image reads “Positioning in the middle of the valley means a steeper turn is necessary and there may be insufficient room to turn back safely.”

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Figure 6. Estimated flight path with shadows at the time of the accident (Image: Google Earth)

A Google Earth satellite image shows the view within a long valley that extends forward through a mountain range.

A solid line drawn onto the image shows the estimated flight path of the aircraft. The line extends along the left edge of the valley, then curves to the right and downward, where it ends at a point labeled “Crash site.”

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Photo 2.– Actual and perceived horizon

Photograph of the area between mountains in a valley.

A dashed line extends across the area where the two mountainsides meet visually; it is labeled “Perceived horizon.”

A dotted line lower in the picture extends across the area where the bottoms of the mountains meet; it is labeled “Actual horizon.”

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