Aviation Safety Issues Investigation Report SII A05-01

Executive Summary

Table of Contents

  1. 1.0 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Background
    2. 1.2 Objectives and Expected Benefits of the Safety Issues Investigation
    3. 1.3 Methodology -Data Collection and Analysis
    4. 1.3.1 Procedures
    5. 1.3.2 Data Collection
    6. 1.3.3 Data Constraints
  2. 2.0 Overview of Canadian Post-Impact Fire Experience
    1. 2.1 TSB Post-Impact Fire Statistics
    2. 2.2 Post-Impact Fire Investigation and Autopsy and Post-Mortem Protocol
    3. 2.3 Geographic Distribution of Post-Impact Fire Accidents and Injuries
    4. 2.4 Number of Registered Aircraft
    5. 2.5 Accident Rates for Small Aircraft by Operator Type
    6. 2.6 Differentiating Post-Impact Fire Rates by Aircraft Type, Model, and Basis for Registration
    7. 2.6.1 Production Aeroplanes
    8. 2.6.2 Production Helicopters
    9. 2.6.3 Amateur-built Aeroplanes, Helicopters, and Gyroplanes
    10. 2.6.4 Basic and Advanced Ultralights
    11. 2.6.5 Gliders
  3. 3.0 Surviving Post-Impact Fire Accidents
    1. 3.1 Survival Thresholds
    2. 3.2 Escape from Small-Aircraft Post-Impact Fires
    3. 3.3 On-board Hand-held Fire Extinguishers
    4. 3.4 Fire Suppression
    5. 3.5 Fuel Type
  4. 4.0 Overview of Aircraft Crashworthy Design Requirements
    1. 4.1 General
    2. 4.2 Current FAR 23 Requirements for Production Aircraft
    3. 4.3 History of Change in FAR 23 Fuel System Crash-Resistance Certification Requirements
    4. 4.4 Tests of Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems
    5. 4.5 History of Fuel System Crash Resistance Certification Changes to Parts and 29 of the Federal Aviation Regulations
    6. 4.6 The Simula Technologies Small Airplane Crashworthiness Design Guide
    7. 4.7 Improvements by Manufacturers to Reduce Post-Impact Fires and Fire-Related Injuries and Fatalities
    8. 4.8 Automotive Improvements to Reduce Post-Impact Fires
  5. 5.0 Cost-Benefit Analysis
  6. 6.0 Unsafe Conditions Associated with Post-Impact Fire
    1. 6.1 General
    2. 6.2 Ignition Source in Close Proximity to Combustible Material
    3. 6.3 Combustible Material in Close Proximity to an Occupant
    4. 6.4 Compromised Occupant Egress
    5. 6.5 Inadequate or Untimely Fire Suppression
  7. 7.0 Post-Impact Fire Update: 01 January 2003 to 31 December 2004
  8. 8.0 Discussion
  9. 9.0 Safety Action
    1. 9.1 Recommendations
    2. 9.1.1 Recommendation Regarding Value of Statistical Life
    3. 9.1.2 Recommendation Regarding Design Standards for New Aeroplanes
    4. 9.1.3 Recommendation Regarding Existing Production Aircraft
    5. 9.2 Crashworthiness Technology for Amateur-built Aircraft, and Basic and Advanced Ultralights
  10. Appendices
    1. Appendix A -Post-Impact Fire Accident Summary
    2. Appendix B -References
    3. Appendix C -Glossary
  11. Figures
    1. Figure 1 - Comparison of Non-PIF and PIF Small-Aircraft Accidents, 1976-2002
    2. Figure 2 - Geographic Distribution of PIF Accidents and Injuries
    3. Figure 3 - Canadian Accident Rates per 100 000 Hours by Operator Type, 1993-2002
    4. Figure 4 - Number of Aircraft Involved in Accidents with Fire-Related Injuries or Fatalities Classified by Eligibility for Registration
    5. Figure 5 - Number of Aircraft Involved in Accidents with Fire-Related Injuries or Fatalities by Type of Registration
  12. Tables
    1. Table 1 - Number of Fatal and Serious Injuries in PIF Versus Non-PIF Small-Aircraft Accidents, 1976-2002
    2. Table 2 - Summary of Production Aeroplane Models with Five or More PIF Accidents, 1976-2002

NOTE

The following documents were prepared for or used in the preparation of this report. All of the listed documents are available upon request from the Transportation Safety Board.

Document 1 A Review of the Process of Economic Analysis into Risk Control Options for Mitigation of Post-Impact Fire Risks for Aircraft with a Maximum Certified Take-off Weight of 5670 Kilograms or Less
Document 2 Microsoft Excel spreadsheet of all accident information used to prepare Appendix A
Document 3 Chronology of Typical Post-Impact Fire Accidents
Document 4 Excerpt from Simula Technologies Small Airplane Crashworthiness Design Guide, Chapter 10: Post-Crash Factors
Document 5 Excerpt from Simula Technologies Small Airplane Crashworthiness Design Guide, Fuel System Design Checklist

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