Statistical Summary – Aviation Occurrences 2011

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Foreword

This document provides users of Canadian aviation safety data with an annual summary of selected statistics on aviation occurrences.

Users of these statistics are advised that, in a live database, the occurrence data are constantly being updated. Consequently, the statistics can change slightly over time. Further, as many occurrences are not formally investigated, information recorded on some occurrences may not have been verified. Therefore, caution should be used when utilizing these statistics. The 2011 statistics presented here reflect the TSB database updated as of 15 February 2012.

To enhance awareness and increase the safety value of the material presented in the TSB Statistical Summary, Aviation Occurrences 2011, readers are encouraged to copy or reprint the data presented, in whole or in part, for further distribution (with acknowledgements of the source).

The TSB is an independent agency operating under its own Act of Parliament. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety.


Aviation occurrences in 2011

Accidents

Overview of accidents and fatalities (tables 1, 2, 3a, 3b and 6)

In 2011, a total of 257 aviation accidents were reported to the TSB. Of this number, 230 involved Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights), a 6% decrease from 2010 (Figure 1).

The 2011 estimate of flying activity is 3,966,000 hours, and the accident rate for Canadian-registered aircraft decreased from the 2010 accident rate of 5.8 accidents per 100 000 flying hours to 5.7. Statistical analysis using linear regression indicates a significant downward trend in accident rates (p < .01)1 over the past 10 years.

The 230 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights) included 192 accidents involving aeroplanes2 (49 accidents involved commercially operated aeroplanes) and 35 accidents involving helicopters. The remaining 3 accidents involved balloons, gliders or gyrocopters.

Figure 1—Accidents and accident rates,3 2002–2011
Figure 1-Accidents and Accident Rates 2002-2011

Of the 49 accidents involving commercial aeroplanes (5 airliners, 4 commuter aircraft, 26 air taxi and 14 aerial work) in 2011 (Figure 2), 6 fatal accidents involved air taxi aircraft, 2 fatal accidents involved aerial work, one fatal accident involved a commuter aircraft, and one fatal accident involved an airliner.

A total of 138 accidents involved private/other aeroplanes, 6% lower than the five-year average of 147. In 2011, 11 such accidents resulted in fatalities, down from 2010, and down four from the five-year average.

Figure 2—Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by aircraft type, 2011

Figure 2-Accidents Involving  Canadian-Registered Aircraft, by Aircraft Type, 2011

In 2011, 30 fatal accidents involved Canadian-registered aircraft other than ultralights (Figure 3), slightly lower than last year's total of 31 but the same as the 2006–2010 average of 30. The number of fatalities (65) was higher than the five-year average (56), and the number of serious injuries (37) decreased from the five-year average (40).

In 2011, for all reportable accidents, crew fatalities accounted for 53% of aircraft fatalities, passenger fatalities accounted for 41%, and ground fatalities accounted for 6%.

Figure 3—Fatalities and fatal accidents, 2002–2011
Figure 3-Fatalities and Fatal  Accidents, 2002-2011

Two accidents involved aeroplanes operated by the state (that is, operated by federal or provincial governments) in 2011, with no fatalities.

In 2011, 35 accidents involved helicopters, yielding a 15% decrease from the five-year average of 41. Eight of those accidents were fatal, resulting in 18 fatalities. Over the past 10 years, the highest proportion of helicopter accidents occurred during air transport operations (38%), pleasure/travel (12%), and training (9%).

In 2011, 17 accidents in Canada involved ultralight aircraft, a 43% decrease form the five-year average of 30. Three of these were fatal accidents resulting in 3 fatalities.

In 2011, 10 accidents involved foreign-registered aircraft in Canada, with 2 fatal accidents resulting in 2 fatalities.

Accidents by selected categories

Province (Table 8): In 2011, Ontario and Quebec accounted for 24% and 23% respectively of Canadian-registered aircraft accidents, while British Columbia accounted for 17%. Canadian-registered aircraft accidents were lower than the five-year average in most provinces except for Saskatchewan, which had the same number of accidents in 2011 as the five-year average and the Yukon which was higher than the five year average (Figure 4).

Figure 4-Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by province, 2011
Figure 4-Accidents involving Canadian-Registered Aircraft, by Province, 2011

Accident events and phases (Table 11 and Table 12): Accidents may be analyzed in more detail by examining the nature and distribution of selected events contributing to an occurrence. Table 11 and table 12 show counts of accidents involving selected event types within each phase of flight.

Although a single accident may involve more than one event within a phase, that accident is only counted once in the phase total. Therefore, the total of events within a phase will not sum to phase event totals. For example, in the "take-off" phase, if an occurrence involves both "loss of control" and "power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total. In addition, approximately 5% of aeroplane accidents and 25% of helicopter accidents involve events in more than one phase of flight (not including "post-impact"), so the accidents shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6 sum to more than the total of accidents.

In 2011, the greatest numbers of aeroplane accidents were associated with landing (56%) and take-off (20%) phases of flight, followed by en route (15%) and approach (11%) phases. The greatest numbers of helicopter accidents were associated with en route (28%) and manoeuvering (25%) phases of flight, followed by the landing phase (19%).

Figure 5 - Aeroplane accidents by event phase of flight, 2002-2011
Figure  5 - Aeroplane Accidents by Event Phase of Flight, 2002-2011

Figure 6 - Helicopter accidents by event phase of flight, 2002-2011
Figure  6 - Helicopter Accidents by Event Phase of Flight, 2002-2011

From 2002 to 2011, of the 1224 aeroplane accidents with landing phase events, 26% involved missing or going off the runway, 23% involved collision with object, 18% involved landing gear collapse or retraction, and 18% involved a nosedown or overturning event. Of the 508 aeroplane accidents with take-off phase events, 30% involved collision with terrain, 28% involved loss of control, and 28% involved collision with object.

Collision with terrain was the predominant event in fatal aeroplane accidents from 2002 to 2011. Collision with terrain was involved in 63% of the 51 fatal aeroplane accidents with takeoff phase events, 61% of 89 fatal aeroplane accidents with en route phase events, 65% of 26 fatal aeroplane accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 75% of 48 fatal aeroplane accidents with approach phase events, and 43% of 28 fatal aeroplane accidents with landing phase events.

From 2002 to 2011, of the 180 helicopter accidents with landing phase events, 28% involved a hard landing, 25% involved collision with terrain, 19% involved loss of control, and 19% involved a collision with object. Of the 114 helicopter accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 40% involved collision with terrain, 28% involved loss of control, and 22% involved collision with object.

Collision with terrain was also the predominant event in fatal helicopter accidents from 2002 to 2011. Collision with terrain was involved in 8 of 10 fatal helicopter accidents with takeoff phase events, 21 of 29 fatal helicopter accidents with en route phase events, 16 of 23 fatal helicopter accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 4 of 10 fatal helicopter accidents with approach phase events, and 6 of 9 fatal helicopter accidents with landing phase events.

Operation type (Table 6): In 2011, aeroplane accidents occurred mainly on recreational flights (53%), followed by air transport (18%) and training flights (15%). Helicopter accidents occurred mainly on air transport flights (37%) and recreational flights (26%).

Incidents

Overview of incidents (Table 1, Table 9 and Table 10)

Pursuant to TSB mandatory incident reporting requirements, 675 incidents were reported in 2011, 573 of which involved Canadian-registered aircraft.

In 2011, the most frequent incident types were declared emergency (41%), risk of collision or loss of separation (18%), and engine failure (14%) (Figure 7).

Figure 7—Reportable incidents by type, 2011
Figure 7-Reportable Incidents by Type, 2011

Appendix

Appendix A: Aviation occurrence tables

Table 1. Reportable aviation occurrences, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Accidents 324 373 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257
Accidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 297 335 279 283 278 300 274 271 273 240
Accidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 12 7 9 7 11 13 7 11 1 7
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 15 31 21 18 14 10 15 15 14 10
Accidents by operator type 324 373 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257
Commercial 108 106 87 94 105 98 95 74 86 77
Airliner (705) 6 7 3 4 7 4 6 2 6 6
Commuter (704) 6 9 1 7 4 4 5 6 7 6
Air taxi (703) 57 45 58 56 63 53 64 44 44 37
Aerial work (702) 37 41 21 26 30 34 19 20 28 27
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 2 4 4 2 1 4 2 2 1 1
State 5 8 4 2 4 2 5 4 5 2
Corporate 6 4 6 10 3 10 4 6 2 7
Private/Other operator type (b) 206 257 213 201 191 213 191 215 195 172
Accidents by aircraft type 324 373 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257
Aeroplane 219 271 221 218 216 243 208 223 220 201
Helicopter 58 44 41 50 56 46 44 33 31 36
Ultralight 36 47 37 31 28 30 29 35 30 17
Other aircraft type (c) 12 11 9 8 4 5 13 7 7 3
Number of aircraft involved in accidentsNote * 327 376 314 314 311 327 300 303 290 261
Aeroplanes 221 273 225 224 223 245 214 228 222 204
Helicopters 58 44 42 51 56 47 44 33 31 36
Ultralights 36 47 38 31 28 30 29 35 30 17
Other aircraft type(c) 12 12 9 8 4 5 13 7 7 4
Fatal accidents by aircraft type 42 45 33 44 34 38 38 33 36 35
Aeroplane 22 32 20 27 24 25 16 21 28 23
Helicopter 7 3 5 10 9 6 9 8 3 8
Ultralight 9 7 6 5 1 5 12 3 3 3
Other aircraft type (c) 4 3 2 2 0 2 1 1 2 1
Fatalities 67 76 57 69 55 56 64 70 70 70
Serious injuries 46 61 37 61 53 65 50 46 36 43
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 15 31 21 18 14 10 15 15 14 10
Fatal accidents 2 6 3 6 2 0 0 2 2 2
Fatalities 4 8 10 10 2 0 0 2 2 2
Serious injuries 1 4 3 15 1 2 5 3 1 1
Incidents (d) 844 782 865 796 807 874 887 788 815 675
Incidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 661 577 645 571 580 622 651 590 583 518
Incidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 71 100 89 79 78 69 78 66 83 55
Incidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 152 135 164 184 188 224 194 155 188 127
Incidents by type (d) 844 782 865 796 807 874 887 788 815 675
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 189 142 216 174 168 168 172 153 206 120
Declared emergency 279 279 264 222 260 298 314 312 310 275
Engine failure 151 122 134 139 130 129 120 106 87 95
Smoke/Fire 98 96 90 99 102 123 107 97 81 88
Collision 22 16 21 12 21 13 8 9 4 7
Other incident type 105 127 140 150 126 143 166 111 127 90
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents and reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Accidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.
* "Number of aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are accident counts.
a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
d. Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 2. Occurrences involving Canadian-registered aircraft, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Accidents by
aircraft and operator type (a)
274 295 252 259 262 284 252 249 244 230
Aeroplane accidents 208 240 203 203 202 234 197 210 209 192
Commercial 65 68 53 57 54 58 63 54 57 49
Airliner (705) 6 7 3 4 7 4 6 2 6 5
Commuter (704) 6 9 1 6 4 4 5 5 6 4
Air taxi (703) 41 35 41 33 30 39 41 36 28 26
Aerial work (702) 12 17 8 14 13 11 12 10 17 14
Other commercial type 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
State 3 3 2 1 4 1 3 2 3 2
Corporate 2 2 4 6 2 7 4 4 2 4
Private/Other operator type (b) 138 169 145 139 142 168 127 152 147 138
Helicopter accidents 56 44 40 49 56 45 42 32 29 35
Commercial 40 35 31 35 50 34 28 19 27 26
State 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Corporate 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1
Private/Other operator type (b) 13 7 8 13 6 7 14 12 2 8
Other aircraft type (c) 10 11 9 8 4 5 13 7 6 3
Fatal accidents by
aircraft and operator type (a)
31 32 24 34 31 33 26 28 31 30
Aeroplane accidents 22 26 18 22 22 25 16 20 27 21
Commercial 6 8 3 9 6 7 3 5 12 10
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
Air taxi (703) 5 5 3 6 5 5 3 5 7 6
Aerial work (702) 1 3 0 2 1 1 0 0 4 2
Other commercial type 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 15 18 15 13 15 17 11 15 15 11
Helicopter accidents 6 3 4 10 9 6 9 7 3 8
Other aircraft type (c) 3 3 2 2 0 2 1 1 1 1
Fatalities (a) 51 59 37 55 52 50 51 64 64 65
Serious injuries (a) 42 42 27 37 40 56 40 34 31 37
Incidents by type (d) 732 677 734 650 658 691 729 656 666 573
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 169 124 182 150 150 152 149 137 179 105
Declared emergency 231 229 204 152 184 186 235 236 238 224
Engine failure 134 104 118 116 106 108 98 93 67 87
Smoke/Fire 83 82 81 85 86 106 90 84 70 67
Collision 19 16 21 8 18 9 7 7 3 7
Other incident type 96 122 128 139 114 130 150 99 109 83
Accidents involving ultralight aircraft 36 47 36 31 28 30 29 34 30 17
Fatal accidents 9 7 6 5 1 5 12 3 3 3
Fatalities 12 9 10 6 1 6 13 4 4 3
Serious injuries 3 15 7 9 12 7 5 9 4 5
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents and reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Number of accidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.
a. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights.
b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e. flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
d. Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 3a. Accident rates involving Canadian-registered aircraft (per hours flown, excluding ultralights and other aircraft types), 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Accidents 264 284 243 251 258 279 239 242 238 227
Fatal accidents 28 29 22 32 31 31 25 27 30 29
Fatalities 48 56 35 52 52 47 50 63 63 63
Hours flown (thousands) (a) 3,777 3,574 3,750 3,750 3,891 4,193 4,193 3,797 4,099 3,966
Accidents per 100,000 hours 7.0 7.9 6.5 6.7 6.6 6.7 5.7 6.4 5.8 5.7
Fatal accidents per 100,000 hours 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
Fatalities per 100,000 hours 1.3 1.6 0.9 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.5 1.6
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
a. Source: Transport Canada (2010 and 2011 hours flown are estimated).
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 3b. Aircraft accident rates in Canada (per movements, excluding ultralights and other aircraft types), 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Accidents 265 308 253 260 261 277 245 246 250 230
Fatal accidents 26 34 23 36 29 30 21 28 31 30
Fatalities 45 63 43 59 49 44 43 64 64 64
Aircraft movements (thousands) (a) 6,649 6,369 6,183 6,156 6,308 6,824 6,852 6,540 6,412 6,245
Accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 4.0 4.8 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.6 3.8 3.9 3.7
Fatal accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5
Fatalities per 100,000 aircraft movements 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.0
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
a. Source: Statistics Canada (2011 movements are estimated).
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 4. Aircraft accident fatalities, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Fatalities 67 76 57 69 55 56 64 70 70 70
Fatalities in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 58 67 45 60 48 53 57 66 68 67
Fatalities outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 5 1 2 1 5 3 7 2 0 1
Fatalities in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 4 8 10 10 2 0 0 2 2 2
Fatalities by operator type 67 76 57 69 55 56 64 70 70 70
Commercial 16 21 25 26 28 19 25 36 36 41
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 17 1 2
Air taxi (703) 9 15 18 17 18 10 20 18 28 16
Aerial work (702) 5 6 0 7 10 9 5 1 7 11
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 2 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 3 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 1 0 1 7 0 0 2
Private/Other operator type (b) 48 51 32 42 26 36 32 34 34 27
Crew fatalities by operator type 39 43 37 44 32 37 35 34 39 37
Commercial 8 11 11 15 12 12 8 10 17 18
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 2
Air taxi (703) 2 5 4 9 5 7 6 7 11 7
Aerial work (702) 4 6 0 4 7 6 2 1 5 5
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 2 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 2
Private/Other operator type (b) 28 31 26 28 19 24 25 24 22 17
Passenger fatalities by operator type 27 33 20 25 22 19 28 36 30 29
Commercial 7 10 14 11 15 7 16 26 18 20
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 15 0 0
Air taxi (703) 7 10 14 8 12 3 14 11 16 9
Aerial work (702) 0 0 0 3 3 3 2 0 2 3
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 20 20 6 14 7 12 7 10 12 9
Ground fatalities 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 4
Fatalities by aircraft type 67 76 57 69 55 56 64 70 70 70
Aeroplane 41 58 40 45 42 39 34 38 57 47
Helicopter 9 6 5 15 12 8 16 27 7 18
Ultralight 12 9 10 6 1 6 13 4 4 3
Other aircraft type (c) 5 3 2 3 0 3 1 1 2 2
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Fatalities by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, a fatality is counted in each category, but only once in the total.
a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 5. Aircraft accident serious injuries, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Serious injuries 46 61 37 61 53 65 50 46 36 43
Serious injuries in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 41 55 34 45 51 61 45 42 35 33
Serious injuries outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 4 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 9
Serious injuries in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 1 4 3 15 1 2 5 3 1 1
Serious injuries by operator type 46 61 37 61 53 65 50 46 36 43
Commercial 20 20 14 24 20 30 24 11 16 25
Airliner (705) 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 10
Commuter (704) 1 7 0 0 0 1 2 1 4 2
Air taxi (703) 16 7 10 4 16 15 18 6 7 8
Aerial work (702) 3 5 2 7 2 14 3 3 4 5
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 2 12 1 0 0 0 0 0
State 1 0 0 1 2 3 0 2 1 0
Corporate 1 0 0 4 0 1 0 3 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 24 41 23 33 31 31 26 30 19 18
Crew serious injuries by operator type 28 41 26 37 28 30 25 27 22 18
Commercial 7 12 8 11 9 10 11 5 6 6
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
Air taxi (703) 5 4 4 2 6 3 9 2 2 2
Aerial work (702) 2 5 2 6 2 6 2 3 3 4
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0
Corporate 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 19 29 18 23 18 19 14 19 15 12
Passenger serious injuries by operator type 16 16 9 22 23 32 25 19 13 24
Commercial 11 7 5 11 10 20 13 6 10 18
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 10
Commuter (704) 1 4 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 2
Air taxi (703) 9 3 5 1 9 12 9 4 5 6
Aerial work (702) 1 0 0 0 0 8 1 0 1 0
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 5 9 4 10 12 9 12 11 3 6
Ground serious injuries 2 4 2 2 2 3 0 0 1 1
Serious injuries by aircraft type 46 61 37 61 53 65 50 46 36 43
Aeroplane 32 38 20 41 28 32 29 24 28 30
Helicopter 8 7 6 10 9 13 14 11 3 8
Ultralight 3 15 8 9 12 7 5 9 4 5
Other aircraft type (c) 3 1 3 2 4 13 2 2 1 0
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Serious injuries by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, a serious injury is counted in each category, but only once in the total.
a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 6. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aeroplanes and helicopters by operation type, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Aeroplane accidents by operation type 208 240 203 203 202 234 197 210 209 192
Training 20 34 25 16 33 33 30 43 28 28
Pleasure/Travel 102 122 118 116 96 118 83 109 108 102
Business 6 8 4 6 8 15 7 4 6 7
Forest fire management 2 2 3 2 4 0 1 3 2 1
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 6 5 7 5 6 8 4 0 6 4
Aerial application 6 13 3 6 8 8 9 4 10 4
Inspection 4 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
Air transport 49 42 35 35 37 40 46 34 37 35
Air ambulance 2 1 2 1 3 2 3 5 2 1
Sightseeing 1 4 0 2 3 1 2 2 1 2
Other/Unknown 10 10 6 14 5 9 11 8 9 10
Aeroplane fatal accidents by operation type 22 26 18 22 22 25 16 20 27 21
Training 1 3 4 0 4 3 0 1 1 1
Pleasure/Travel 11 15 10 12 11 10 8 13 14 10
Business 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0
Forest fire management 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 2 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 0
Aerial application 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
Inspection 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air transport 5 4 3 7 5 4 3 4 7 8
Air ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Sightseeing 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Other/Unknown 0 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 2 1
Helicopter accidents by operation type 56 44 40 49 56 45 42 32 29 35
Training 9 6 4 3 2 3 6 5 0 2
Pleasure/Travel 2 1 5 11 4 4 9 5 2 9
Business 6 1 0 1 0 5 0 3 0 0
Forest fire management 6 6 4 1 3 0 0 4 1 2
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 5 0 2 0 2 3 0 0 1 1
Aerial application 1 2 1 2 0 2 1 0 3 1
Inspection 1 4 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 2
Air transport 14 11 15 19 29 16 22 10 15 13
Air ambulance 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Other/Unknown 12 13 7 11 15 12 3 4 6 5
Fatal helicopter accidents by operation type 6 3 4 10 9 6 9 7 3 8
Training 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Pleasure/Travel 0 0 1 5 0 0 3 2 0 2
Business 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Forest fire management 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Aerial application 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Inspection 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Air transport 0 0 2 3 2 3 4 3 2 1
Air ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 3 2 0 1 4 2 2 0 0 1
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Airplane accidents by operation type", when an occurrence involves a Business and an Inspection airplane, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.
Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 7. Aircraft accidents by province/territory, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Accidents by province/territory 324 373 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257
Newfoundland and Labrador 7 12 5 5 4 6 7 3 3 3
Prince Edward Island 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 9 1 5 0 2 4 6 3 7 5
New Brunswick 2 1 8 6 3 8 1 2 5 3
Quebec 49 67 55 64 56 72 58 68 65 58
Ontario 93 115 92 73 60 81 69 74 71 63
Manitoba 20 32 12 19 21 18 27 19 27 17
Saskatchewan 18 20 13 15 19 23 19 14 18 18
Alberta 50 40 33 34 44 32 33 31 25 22
British Columbia 53 65 60 70 64 46 44 59 47 43
Yukon 5 6 7 5 4 7 7 4 3 8
Northwest Territories 4 4 7 5 5 8 8 6 9 6
Nunavut 2 1 2 2 8 5 8 2 7 4
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 12 7 9 7 11 13 7 11 1 7
Fatal accidents by province/territory 42 45 33 44 34 38 38 33 36 35
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 3 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 3 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
New Brunswick 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0
Quebec 7 10 6 10 4 6 5 9 9 5
Ontario 10 14 6 7 4 6 7 6 9 6
Manitoba 1 0 2 2 0 3 1 0 1 1
Saskatchewan 2 1 2 1 4 5 0 2 0 3
Alberta 2 5 2 5 6 3 8 1 2 4
British Columbia 13 10 8 16 9 10 10 8 7 10
Yukon 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
Northwest Territories 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 2
Nunavut 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 3 1 2 1 4 1 4 2 0 1
Fatalities by province/territory 67 76 57 69 55 56 64 70 70 70
Newfoundland and Labrador 2 5 1 2 0 1 0 18 2 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 3 0 8 0 0 1 0 0 2 1
New Brunswick 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0
Quebec 15 15 7 14 7 7 7 15 26 9
Ontario 14 30 22 11 6 7 8 12 14 12
Manitoba 1 0 2 2 0 5 1 0 1 1
Saskatchewan 2 1 2 2 4 6 0 4 0 8
Alberta 3 7 2 8 9 5 12 1 4 5
British Columbia 22 16 8 28 16 17 26 14 15 16
Yukon 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
Northwest Territories 0 0 2 0 6 3 2 2 3 4
Nunavut 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 12
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 5 1 2 1 5 3 7 2 0 1
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 8. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft by province/territory (excluding ultralights), 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Accidents by province/territory 274 295 252 259 262 284 252 249 244 230
Newfoundland and Labrador 6 9 5 5 3 5 5 3 3 3
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 7 1 3 0 0 3 2 1 7 3
New Brunswick 2 1 5 5 2 7 1 2 4 3
Quebec 42 55 44 56 48 61 50 60 52 52
Ontario 74 80 71 57 52 71 62 61 55 56
Manitoba 17 28 12 18 17 17 24 19 25 16
Saskatchewan 18 16 13 13 18 21 18 12 18 17
Alberta 46 34 29 28 41 31 28 28 24 18
British Columbia 41 54 46 59 53 36 33 44 38 39
Yukon 4 4 6 3 4 6 7 2 3 7
Northwest Territories 4 4 7 5 5 8 8 5 8 6
Nunavut 1 1 2 2 8 5 7 1 6 3
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 12 7 9 7 11 13 7 10 1 7
Fatal accidents by province/territory 31 32 24 34 31 33 26 28 31 30
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Quebec 6 5 4 9 3 4 4 8 8 5
Ontario 5 11 2 6 4 6 4 5 8 4
Manitoba 1 0 2 2 0 3 1 0 1 1
Saskatchewan 2 1 2 0 3 4 0 1 0 3
Alberta 2 3 2 2 6 3 4 1 2 3
British Columbia 9 8 6 12 9 9 6 8 5 9
Yukon 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
Northwest Territories 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 2 2
Nunavut 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 3 1 2 1 4 1 4 1 0 1
Fatalities by province/territory 51 59 37 55 52 50 51 64 64 65
Newfoundland and Labrador 2 3 1 2 0 1 0 18 2 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Quebec 14 9 4 12 6 5 6 14 25 9
Ontario 6 27 14 10 6 7 4 11 12 10
Manitoba 1 0 2 2 0 5 1 0 1 1
Saskatchewan 2 1 2 0 3 5 0 2 0 8
Alberta 3 4 2 4 9 5 8 1 4 4
British Columbia 16 13 6 23 16 15 22 14 13 15
Yukon 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
Northwest Territories 0 0 2 0 6 3 2 2 2 4
Nunavut 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 12
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 5 1 2 1 5 3 7 1 0 1
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 9. Reportable aircraft incidents, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Incidents by type 844 782 865 796 807 874 887 788 815 675
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 189 142 216 174 168 168 172 153 206 120
Declared emergency 279 279 264 222 260 298 314 312 310 275
Engine failure 151 122 134 139 130 129 120 106 87 95
Smoke/Fire 98 96 90 99 102 123 107 97 81 88
Collision 22 16 21 12 21 13 8 9 4 7
Control difficulties 31 41 43 44 41 41 39 24 32 31
Crew unable to perform duties 38 49 55 67 57 65 78 59 50 24
Dangerous goods-related 1 2 0 1 2 3 1 3 1 0
Depressurization 18 21 9 14 9 13 17 6 11 16
Fuel shortage 3 6 13 10 6 8 7 4 9 6
Failure to remain in landing area 8 3 11 11 7 9 18 9 14 11
Incorrect fuel 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Slung load released 3 4 5 1 3 3 5 3 9 1
Transmission or gearbox failure 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 1
Incidents by operator type 844 782 865 796 807 874 887 788 815 675
Commercial 774 736 819 732 773 823 857 749 776 635
Airliner (705) 560 524 578 488 528 563 590 498 519 445
Commuter (704) 84 68 91 89 80 75 94 87 85 75
Air taxi (703) 42 34 37 39 52 25 36 43 31 29
Aerial work (702) 18 33 38 22 20 20 24 31 26 15
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 126 121 144 151 165 196 181 138 170 111
State 34 26 29 28 21 29 17 23 26 14
Corporate 47 34 34 45 30 43 21 29 20 22
Private/Other operator type (b) 47 19 37 40 31 24 33 27 32 25
Incidents by aircraft type 844 782 865 796 807 874 887 788 815 675
Aeroplane 823 758 845 779 787 854 870 770 790 657
Helicopter 23 30 28 20 29 22 19 21 33 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
Number of aircraft involved in incidentsNote * 1013 907 1038 956 974 1031 1052 914 979 777
Aeroplanes 988 876 1008 935 942 1009 1032 891 945 757
Helicopters 24 31 30 20 30 22 19 22 33 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0
Incidents by province/territory 844 782 865 796 807 874 887 788 815 675
Newfoundland and Labrador 25 16 19 25 24 19 21 16 30 14
Prince Edward Island 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 0 1
Nova Scotia 13 18 23 14 17 26 20 18 25 19
New Brunswick 9 5 10 11 14 17 12 5 10 7
Quebec 87 104 85 123 101 127 127 97 109 126
Ontario 317 240 248 220 244 264 273 194 176 176
Manitoba 42 46 53 39 43 52 59 46 51 31
Saskatchewan 24 23 22 14 20 19 28 18 19 11
Alberta 95 99 118 108 111 79 89 106 84 82
British Columbia 110 99 142 93 83 133 120 162 156 76
Yukon 6 3 4 3 5 4 4 6 4 3
Northwest Territories 21 18 28 27 25 27 27 14 21 30
Nunavut 10 8 12 16 10 14 17 8 21 19
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 1 1 10 23 30 23 10 30 26 25
Outside Canada 83 101 89 79 78 69 78 66 83 55
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.
Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Incidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.
* "Number of aircraft involved in incidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are incident counts.
a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 10. Reportable incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Incidents by type 732 677 734 650 658 691 729 656 666 573
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 169 124 182 150 150 152 149 137 179 105
Declared emergency 231 229 204 152 184 186 235 236 238 224
Engine failure 134 104 118 116 106 108 98 93 67 87
Smoke/Fire 83 82 81 85 86 106 90 84 70 67
Collision 19 16 21 8 18 9 7 7 3 7
Control difficulties 28 41 41 41 31 38 32 18 24 27
Crew unable to perform duties 37 48 51 67 56 63 76 57 49 24
Dangerous goods-related 0 2 0 1 2 3 1 3 1 0
Depressurization 18 17 7 12 9 11 15 3 10 15
Fuel shortage 1 6 10 5 6 4 4 4 6 5
Failure to remain in landing area 6 3 10 10 6 7 16 8 9 10
Incorrect fuel 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Slung load released 3 4 5 1 3 3 5 3 9 1
Transmission or gearbox failure 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 1
Incidents by operator type 732 677 734 650 658 691 729 656 666 573
Commercial 677 636 700 604 635 660 704 625 636 544
Airliner (705) 560 520 578 487 524 563 586 494 518 443
Commuter (704) 84 68 91 89 79 75 94 87 85 75
Air taxi (703) 42 34 37 39 52 25 36 43 30 29
Aerial work (702) 18 33 38 22 20 17 24 30 26 15
Other commercial type (a) 29 25 25 24 31 36 32 19 31 22
State 29 26 27 25 20 28 16 20 22 14
Corporate 37 29 26 29 21 23 17 21 17 13
Private/Other operator type (b) 41 16 31 34 27 22 31 26 29 21
Incidents by aircraft type 732 677 734 650 658 691 729 656 666 573
Aeroplane 712 653 715 633 638 673 712 638 642 555
Helicopter 23 30 27 20 29 20 19 21 32 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
Number of aircraft involved in incidentsNote * 886 786 886 785 803 833 874 772 812 666
Aeroplanes 862 755 857 764 771 813 854 749 779 646
Helicopters 24 31 29 20 30 20 19 22 32 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0
Incidents by province/territory 732 677 734 650 658 691 729 656 666 573
Newfoundland and Labrador 15 9 10 14 13 10 13 7 13 10
Prince Edward Island 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 9 12 18 7 12 17 12 13 19 14
New Brunswick 7 3 10 7 9 12 7 3 8 5
Quebec 73 85 66 98 79 90 96 77 90 104
Ontario 276 205 211 175 198 202 222 167 141 146
Manitoba 38 40 43 31 35 43 49 40 45 30
Saskatchewan 20 18 19 11 19 16 26 16 15 11
Alberta 88 88 105 95 99 67 76 92 74 76
British Columbia 97 87 122 85 72 120 103 141 134 68
Yukon 5 3 2 2 3 4 2 6 3 3
Northwest Territories 20 18 27 25 21 27 27 14 19 30
Nunavut 9 8 9 14 10 9 14 7 17 16
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 2 7 8 5 3 6 5 5
Outside Canada 74 100 89 79 78 69 78 66 83 55
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.
Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Incidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.
* "Number of aircraft involved in Incidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are incident counts.
a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 11. Number of accidents involving aeroplanes by phase of flight and selected event category, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total
Standing/Taxiing 25 25 16 21 20 16 13 20 17 18 191
Collision with object 7 9 5 8 8 6 6 9 6 6 70
Collision with moving aircraft 3 1 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 21
Nosedown/Overturned 2 6 4 2 1 0 1 1 4 3 24
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 4 3 1 2 1 1 0 4 2 3 21
Loss of control 2 2 2 0 2 1 0 1 3 0 13
Other events 17 16 8 14 11 10 6 9 8 10 109
Take-off 62 55 57 50 48 51 40 49 55 41 508
Collision with terrain 22 20 11 22 18 10 10 14 16 10 153
Loss of control 16 18 16 18 14 12 7 15 15 11 142
Collision with object 15 13 16 11 18 17 14 16 14 10 144
Take-off/Landing event 18 12 21 10 10 16 5 13 13 14 132
Power loss 14 12 11 12 9 14 14 12 14 11 123
Other events 30 24 43 25 19 26 20 22 28 22 259
En route 35 49 25 34 41 29 34 40 30 30 347
Power loss 14 25 11 14 18 11 18 25 13 14 163
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 10 15 6 8 6 6 14 9 11 13 98
Collision with terrain 11 8 6 8 16 6 5 10 7 7 84
Component/System related 6 9 4 7 5 9 4 8 6 5 63
Other events 21 22 13 14 21 15 13 18 18 15 170
Manoeuvering 14 13 9 17 11 12 12 3 11 12 114
Collision with terrain 5 7 2 10 4 8 3 2 5 6 52
Loss of control 5 4 4 3 1 5 3 1 3 1 30
Collision with object 2 4 3 2 4 2 4 0 7 2 30
Power loss 2 2 0 5 0 0 4 1 1 3 18
Other events 8 4 5 6 5 4 6 1 3 8 50
Approach 27 35 32 31 25 28 29 30 28 22 287
Collision with terrain 5 15 9 14 5 5 8 12 11 7 91
Power loss 5 6 5 9 9 6 8 7 7 2 64
Collision with object 8 8 4 5 4 9 8 3 6 8 63
Component/System related 5 3 8 5 3 6 6 9 2 5 52
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 5 7 7 4 5 1 6 4 5 3 47
Loss of control 0 9 7 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 43
Other events 10 10 11 16 6 13 4 13 9 6 98
Landing 113 148 133 105 116 149 114 121 112 113 1224
Missed or went off runway 34 38 35 37 27 39 21 29 29 30 319
Collision with object 29 44 24 23 30 32 21 23 25 28 279
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 23 26 23 7 16 30 28 18 26 23 220
Nosedown/Overturned 21 24 30 17 21 26 25 22 18 18 222
Loss of control 21 27 29 18 14 25 16 23 20 16 209
Hard landing 11 21 18 11 20 35 16 18 23 22 195
Collision with terrain 13 25 29 20 10 21 19 15 18 16 186
Wheels-up landing 11 11 14 6 5 12 8 12 7 3 89
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 5 16 5 5 8 6 5 11 5 3 69
Other events 44 48 33 40 46 39 32 34 40 44 400
Post-impact 17 20 18 20 12 13 13 12 20 10 155
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 11 12 8 13 7 8 9 8 15 6 97
Other events 7 9 11 7 5 6 5 5 5 4 64
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the "Take-off" phase, if an occurrence involves both "Control loss" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Table 12. Number of accidents involving helicopters by phase of flight and selected event category, 2002-2011
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total
Standing/Taxiing 4 2 8 9 6 4 3 3 0 6 45
Collision with terrain 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 0 2 11
Loss of control 2 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 2 10
Collision with object 1 0 0 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 7
Other events 3 2 7 8 5 2 2 3 0 5 37
Take-off 9 5 7 10 11 7 7 4 2 6 68
Loss of control 4 2 3 4 7 4 4 1 1 4 34
Collision with terrain 5 2 3 3 6 2 3 2 2 3 31
Collision with object 2 1 1 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 11
Power loss 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 9
Other events 5 2 5 5 5 4 6 1 1 1 35
En route 7 7 7 8 12 12 11 11 7 10 92
Collision with terrain 2 1 2 4 5 6 6 3 3 3 35
Power loss 2 3 3 2 6 4 4 5 3 2 34
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 22
Component/System related 2 0 2 3 2 0 2 1 1 3 16
Other events 4 4 5 4 3 5 8 5 3 5 46
Manoeuvering 16 13 13 11 14 13 9 7 9 9 114
Collision with terrain 3 2 8 7 5 5 4 3 3 6 46
Loss of control 5 3 3 5 0 7 2 3 2 2 32
Collision with object 2 1 4 0 7 1 2 2 4 2 25
Operations related event 4 3 4 1 4 4 1 1 1 2 25
Power loss 5 6 3 1 0 2 2 2 2 0 23
Other events 9 6 5 4 8 7 5 5 4 1 54
Approach 10 7 2 6 2 4 3 5 4 6 49
Collision with terrain 1 0 2 2 1 1 2 3 4 1 17
Power loss 4 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 10
Loss of control 2 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 10
Collision with object 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 6
Other events 6 6 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 29
Landing 31 24 15 19 21 16 17 15 15 7 180
Hard landing 8 8 3 2 9 5 6 2 4 4 51
Collision with terrain 14 6 0 5 3 1 5 5 4 2 45
Loss of control 3 4 6 5 4 2 6 2 1 1 34
Collision with object 4 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 0 34
Other events 14 15 8 8 7 9 4 9 7 2 83
Post-impact 5 5 4 9 4 4 3 4 4 4 46
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 0 3 2 7 3 3 2 3 1 2 26
Other events 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 20
Data extracted February 15, 2012.
Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.
Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the "Take-off" phase, if an occurrence involves both "Control loss" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.
Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Appendix B: Definitions

The following definitions apply to aviation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the associated regulations.

Aviation occurrence

  1. Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft; and
  2. Any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in a) above.

Reportable aviation accident

An accident resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where

  1. a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of
    1. being on board the aircraft;
    2. being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor downwash of the aircraft;
    3. the aircraft sustains damage that adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major repair or replacement of any affected component part; or
    4. the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Reportable aviation incident

An incident resulting directly from the operation of an aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg, where

  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure;
  2. a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
  3. smoke or fire occurs;
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope;
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted, or drags a wing tip, an engine pod, or any other part of the aircraft;
  6. any crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew member's duties as a result of physical incapacitation that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property, or the environment;
  7. depressurization occurs that necessitates an emergency descent;
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft;
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel;
  10. a collision, risk of collision, or loss of separation occurs;
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency response services;
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Serious injury

An injury that is sustained by a person in an accident and that

  1. requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days of the date the injury was received; or
  2. results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or
  3. involves lacerations that cause severe haemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or
  4. involves injury to any internal organ; or
  5. involves second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or
  6. involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

ATS-related event

Any event related to the provision of air traffic control services including, but not limited to, failure or inability to provide service, emergency handling, or loss of in-flight separation.

Air proximity event

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Commercial operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a “for-hire” service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter aircraft

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a multi-engined aircraft that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 to 19 inclusive;
  2. a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane that has a maximum zero fuel weight of 22 680 kg (50 000 pounds) or less and for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of not more than 19 passengers.

Aerial work aircraft

A commercially operated aeroplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving

  1. the carriage on board of persons other than flight crew members;
  2. the carriage of helicopter external loads;
  3. the towing of objects; or
  4. the dispersal of products.

Air taxi aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a single-;engined aircraft;
  2. a multi-engined aircraft, other than a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less; or
  3. any aircraft that is authorized by the Minister of Transport to be operated under Part VII, Subpart 3, Division 1 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

State operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Corporate operators

Corporate operators include companies flying for business reasons.

Private operators

Private operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a “for-hire” basis.


  1. It is agreed by convention that, for a result to be considered statistically significant, its probability must be lower than 1 in 20 (that is, p<.05).
  2. As some occurrences involve more than one aircraft, users are cautioned to note differences between the number of occurrences and the number of aircraft involved in occurrences. All tables except Table 1 exclude ultralight aircraft; all tables except Table 1 and Table 4 also exclude balloons, gliders and gyrocopters.
  3. Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights).
  4. Manoeuvering (i.e., low altitude/aerobatic flight operations) does not occur on all flights.